Important Articles of Indian Constitution: A Beginner’s Guide

Important Articles of Indian Constitution

The foundation of the biggest democracy in the world, the Indian Constitution is a comprehensive charter that describes the structure and tenets of Indian governance. Among its numerous clauses, a few stand out for their crucial function in outlining citizens’ rights and obligations as well as the government’s operations. This article examines Important Articles of Indian Constitution.

How many Articles are in the Constitution?

The Indian Constitution is a vital subject for those hoping to appear in state and central exams, as it is covered in many of them. An article of a constitution is a set of rules that define laws and regulations. These articles cover a variety of subjects, including election procedures, the political system, and individual rights. Before 1949, the Indian Constitution consisted of 395 articles divided into 22 parts. It now consists of 448 articles, 25 parts, 12 schedules, and 104 amendments. Articles about legislatures, the executive branch, sections, schedules, entities established by statute, fundamental rights, and other topics are covered in each part.

List of Important Articles of Indian Constitution

  • Article 1 – Article 4 (Part 1)
    • Article 1: Name and territory of the union
    • Article 2: Admission and establishment of the new state
    • Article 3: Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states
  • Article 5 – Article 11 (Part 2)
    • Article 5: Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution
    • Article 6: Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan
    • Article 10: Continuance of rights of citizenship
    • Article 11: Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law
  • Article 12: Article 35 (Part 3)
    • Article 12: Definition of the state
    • Article 13: Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights
  • Right to Equality: Article 14 to Article 18
    • Article 14 – Equality before the law
    • Article 15 – Proscription against discrimination based on sex, religion, caste, colour, or place of birth
    • Article 16 – Equal access to public employment opportunities
    • Article 17 – Abolition of the Untouchability
    • Article 18 – Abolition of titles
  • Right to Freedom: Article 19 to Article 22
      • Article 19 – Assures Indian citizens of their six rights.
      • Freedom to assemble peacefully and without using force;
      • Freedom to live and settle anywhere in India;
      • Freedom of speech and expression;
      • Freedom to travel without restriction;
      • Freedom to organize into associations or unions;
      • Freedom to engage in any kind of profession or business venture;
  • Right to Exploitation: Article 23 to Article 24
    • Article 23 – Human trafficking and forced labor are forbidden
    • Article 24 – Prohibiting minors under the age of 14 from working in mines and factories
  • Right to Exploitation: Article 25 to Article 28
    • Article 25 – Freedom of conscience as well as freedom to practice, profess, and spread religion
    • Article 26 – The ability to freely oversee religious matters
    • Article 27 – Freedom to pay taxes to support a specific faith
    • Article 28 – Not having to go to religious instruction

Directive Principle of States Policy: Article 36 – 51 (Part 4)

  • Article 36: Definition
  • Article 37: Application of DPSP
  • Article 39A: Equal justice and free legal aid
  • Article 40: Organization of a village panchayat
  • Article 41: Right to work, education, and public assistance in certain cases
  • Article 43: Living Wages, etc. for Workers
  • Article 43A: Participation of workers in the management of industries
  • Article 44: Uniform civil code ( applicable in Goa only)
  • Article 45: Provision for free and compulsory education for children
  • Article 46: Promoting the educational and economic interests of scheduled castes, ST, and OBCs
  • Article 47: It is the state’s responsibility to improve public health, raise the standard of living, and increase nutrition.
  • Article 48: Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry
  • Article 49: Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance
  • Article 50: Separation of judiciary from the executive
  • Article 51: Promotion of international peace and security

Union: Article 52 – 151 (Part 5)

  • Article 52: The President of India
  • Article 53: Executive Power of the Union
  • Article 54: Election of President
  • Article 61: Procedure for Impeachment of the President
  • Article 63: The Vice-president of India
  • Article 64: The Vice-President to be ex-officio chairman of the Council of States
  • Article 66: Election of Vice-president
  • Article 72: Pardoning powers of President
  • Article 74: Council of ministers to aid and advise President
  • Article 76: Attorney-General for India
  • Article 79: Constitution of Parliament
  • Article 80: Composition of Rajya Sabha
  • Article 81: Composition of Lok Sabha
  • Article 83: Duration of Houses of Parliament
  • Article 93: The speakers and Deputy speakers of the House of the People
  • Article 105: Powers, Privileges, etc. of the House of Parliament
  • Article 109: Special procedure concerning money bills
  • Article 110: Definition of “Money Bills”
  • Article 112: Annual Financial Budget
  • Article 114: Appropriation Bills
  • Article 123: Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament
  • Article 124: Establishment of Supreme Court
  • Article 125: Salaries of Judges
  • Article 126: Appointment of acting Chief Justice
  • Article 127: Appointment of ad-hoc judges
  • Article 128:  Attendance of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court
  • Article 129:  Supreme Court to be a Court of Record
  • Article 130:  Seat of the Supreme Court
  • Article 136:  Special leaves for an appeal to the Supreme Court
  • Article 137:  Review of judgement or orders by the Supreme Court
  • Article 141:  Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts
  • Article 148:  Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
  • Article 149:  Duties and Powers of CAG

States: Article 152 – 237 (Part 6)

  • Article 153: Governors of State
  • Article 154: Executive Powers of Governor
  • Article 161: Pardoning powers of the Governor
  • Article 165: Advocate-General of the State
  • Article 213: Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances
  • Article 214: High Courts for states
  • Article 215: High Courts to be a court of record
  • Article 226: Power of High Courts to issue certain writs
  • Article 233: Appointment of District judges
  • Article 235: Control over Subordinate Courts


Important Articles of Indian Constitution, A foundational instrument that organises the Indian government and safeguards citizens’ rights is the Constitution of India. Its 448 articles cover a wide range of topics, including the formation of states and basic obligations. Understanding the Constitution’s role in shaping India’s democratic framework necessitates familiarity with key articles such as equality, freedom, and directive principles.

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