How Many Amendments in Indian Constitution?

How many amendments in Indian constitution

Since its adoption, the Indian Constitution—the longest-written constitution of any sovereign country in the world—has undergone several revisions. These amendments are essential because they let the Constitution change to meet the ever-evolving needs of society. This article will examine How many amendments in Indian constitution, stressing their importance and giving a summary of the main adjustments they made.

First Amendments in Indian Constitution, 1951

  • The First Amendment Act of 1951 gave the State the authority to enact special laws aimed at advancing the interests of the economically and socially disadvantaged.
  • laws about savings that permit the acquisition of estates, etc.
  • Added the Ninth Schedule to shield the land reforms and other laws it contained from judicial review. Article 31 was followed by the addition of Articles 31A and 31B, respectively.
  • There are now three additional justifications for limiting the right to free speech and expression: preserving public order, maintaining good relations with other countries, and encouraging criminal activity. Additionally, it rendered the limitations “reasonable” and, consequently, legally defensible.
  • The cases concerned issues such as state trade monopoly, possession of the Zamindari estate, and freedom of expression. These laws violate equality before the law, freedom of speech, and property rights.

Second Amendments in Indian Constitution, 1952

A readjustment of the Lok Sabha’s representation scale has made it possible for one member to represent even more than 7.5 lakh people.

The Constitution (4th Amendment) Act, 1955

  • The compensation ratio for the forcible acquisition of private property was set by this amendment.
  • specified the upper bounds on the amount of agricultural land that any individual may possess or occupy.
  • gave the government permission to Nationalise any business or industrial project.
  • Added a few additional Acts to the Ninth Schedule.
  • Article 31(2) was amended about the purchase or seizure of public property and the giving of the State ownership or the right to possess any property.
  • expanded the parameters of Article 31 A (law savings).

Seventh Amendment Act, 1956

  • The idea of creating a common High Court for two or more states was put forth.
  • Class A, B, C, and D state abolition: Six Union Territories and 14 States were established

Ninth Amendment Act, 1960

Berubari Union’s (West Bengal) Indian territory was ceded to Pakistan

Tenth Amendment Act, 1961

Dadra, Nagar, and Haveli were incorporated into the Union of India as a Union Territory

12th Amendment Act, 1962

As Union Territories, Goa, Daman, and Diu were admitted into the Indian Union.

13th Amendment Act, 1962

Under Article 371A, Nagaland was established with a special status.

14th Amendment Act, 1962

  • The Indian Union incorporates Pondicherry.
  • The legislature and council of ministers were granted to the Union Territories of Puducherry, Daman and Diu, Goa, Manipur, Tripura, Himachal Pradesh, and Manipur.

19th Amendment Act, 1966

The system of Election Tribunals was abolished and High Courts were given the power to hear election petitions

21st Amendment Act, 1967

The Indian Constitution’s Eighth Schedule includes the Sindhi language.

24th Amendment Act, 1971

It became mandatory for the President to sign the Constitutional Amendment Bill.

25th Amendment Act, 1971

The fundamental Right to Property was curtailed

26th Amendment Act, 1971

The Privy Purse and privileges of former rulers of princely states were abolished

31st Amendment Act, 1972

Lok Sabha seats were increased from 525 to 545

35th Amendment Act, 1974

Sikkim’s protectorate status was revoked, and it was granted the designation of “Associate State” of India.

36th Amendment Act, 1975

Sikkim was made a full-fledged state of India 

40th Amendment Act, 1976

Parliament has the authority to periodically specify India’s territorial waters, maritime zones, continental shelf, and exclusive economic zone (EEZ).

42nd Amendment Act, 1976

Candidates can read a detailed explanation of the 42nd Amendment Act in the linked article, as it is the most extensive amendment to the Indian Constitution and is referred to as the “Mini-Constitution.” 

44th Amendment Act, 1978

Enacted by the Janata Government, it is also a significant amendment to the Indian Constitution. Candidates can read the linked article for a detailed understanding of the 44th Amendment Act. 

52nd Amendment Act, 1985

There is now a new tenth Schedule that contains the anti-defection laws. The linked article provides candidates with detailed information about the Tenth Schedule.

61st  Amendment Act, 1989

For elections to the Legislative Assemblies and the Lok Sabha, the voting age was lowered from 21 to 18.

The Constitution (65th Amendment Act), 1990

A National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes has been established by amending Article 338 of the Constitution. Its members are five other people appointed by warrant and under the Chairperson’s control and seal, in addition to the Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson.

The Constitution (69th Amendment Act), 1991 

Delhi was to become a state and become the “Delhi National Capital Territory” according to an Act of Parliament. Additionally, this gives Delhi a ministerial council with seven members and an assembly of seventy.

The Constitution (71st Amendment Act), 1992 

The amendment makes it possible for Nepali, Manipuri, and Konkani to be added to the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. These three languages bring the total number of languages listed in the Eighth Schedule up to 18.

73rd Amendment Act, 1992

  • Institutions under the Panchayat Raj were granted constitutional status.
  • The Indian Constitution was amended to include a new Part-IX and 11th Schedule, which recognize Panchayati Raj Institutions and the laws about them.

74th Amendment Act, 1992

  • The constitutional status was granted to urban local bodies.
  • The 12th Schedule and a new Part IX-A were added to the Indian Constitution.

The Constitution (76th Amendment Act), 1994 

This Amendment Act raises the percentage of seats reserved for socially and educationally disadvantaged classes in Tamil Nadu’s government employment and admissions to 69%. To shield the Amendment Act from judicial review, it was also added to the Constitution’s Ninth Schedule.

The Constitution (77th Amendment Act), 1995 

With the passage of this amendment, Article 16 of the Constitution now contains a new clause (4-a) granting the State the authority to create reservations for SCs and STs in government job promotions when it determines that their representation in state services is insufficient. This action was taken to overturn the ruling made by the Supreme Court in the Mandal Commission case (Indra Sawhney v. Union of India), wherein the Court determined that promotion quotas were unconstitutional.

The Constitution (80th Amendment Act), 2000

Based on the Tenth Finance Committee’s recommendations, the Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act, 2000, introduced a new tax distribution plan between the Union and the Province. Instead of the States receiving their current share of income tax, excise duty, special excise duties, and exemptions from taxes on rail passenger fares, 26% of the total revenues of Federal taxes and duties are to be transferred to the States under the current income-sharing agreement between the Union and the States.

The Constitution (81st Amendment Act), 2000 

According to this amendment, unfilled positions held by Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for a year under the Reservations clause made under Article 16 of the Constitution will be considered as a separate class of vacancies to be filled in subsequent years. Additionally, these vacancies will not be counted in conjunction with the vacancies of the year in which they were filled to determine the maximum fifty percent quota against the total number of vacancies in that year.

The Constitution (Eighty-Second Amendment) Act, 2000

  • Regarding qualifying marks and standards of evaluation in matters of reservation in the promotion of public services, this amendment reinstated the relaxation.
  • cleared the path for any provisions to be made in its favour.

The Constitution (84th Amendment Act), 2001 

To close the gap caused by uneven population and electoral growth in various constituencies, the Act amended Articles 82 and 170(3) of the Constitution to rationalise and readjust the geographical constituencies of the States. This included the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Constituencies, and the number of seats allocated to each State in the House of People and Parliamentary Assemblies of States.

86th Amendment Act, 2002

  • Elementary education was declared to be a fundamental right; children aged six to fourteen are required to receive it for free.
  • “It shall be the duty of every citizen of India who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years” is the new Fundamental Duty added under Article 51 A.

88th Amendment Act, 2003

Article 268-A, which states that the Union shall levy, collect, and appropriate the service tax on behalf of the States, provided for the implementation of the service tax.

92nd Amendment Act, 2003

In the Eighth Schedule, Bodo, Dogri (Dongri), Maithili, and Santhali were added.

There are now 22 official languages instead of just 18.

95th Amendment Act, 2009

For an additional ten years, or until 2020, the reserved seats for SCs and STs and the special representation of Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies have been extended (Article 334).

The Constitution (96th Amendment Act), 2011

Replaced Odia for Oriya in the Indian Constitution 8th Schedule.

The Constitution (97th Amendment Act), 2012

inserted Article 43B, which is titled “Promotion of cooperative societies,” and Part-IXB, which is titled “Co-operative societies” into Article 19(l)(c), placing the words “or cooperative societies” after the word “or unions.” The amendment seeks to encourage cooperative economic endeavours, which ultimately aid in the development of rural India. It is necessary to hold management accountable to members and other stakeholders in addition to guaranteeing the autonomous and democratic operation of cooperatives.

100th Amendment Act, 2015

Provisions relating to the territories of four states (Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya) in the first schedule of the Indian Constitution, amended, were mentioned to pursue the land boundary agreement between India and Bangladesh in 1974 and the exchange of certain enclave territories with Bangladesh. 

101st Amendment Act, 2016

Goods and Service Tax (GST) was introduced. Read more about GST in the linked article. 

102nd Amendment Act, 2018

Constitutional Status was granted to the National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC)

103rd Amendment Act, 2019

10% of the population may be reserved for economically disadvantaged groups of citizens belonging to classes other than those listed in Article 15 clauses (4) and (5), i.e., classes other than citizens from socially and educationally disadvantaged backgrounds or members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

104th Amendment Act, 2020

Increased from seventy to eighty years the age at which SC and ST seats in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies must end. eliminated the Anglo-Indian community’s reserved seats in the state and Lok Sabha legislatures.

105th Amendment Act, 2021

reinstated the authority of state governments to create the list of socially and educationally disadvantaged classes (SEBCs).

106th Amendment Act, 2023

This was the women’s reservation bill, which reserves one-third of all seats, including those reserved for SCs and STs, for women in the Lok Sabha, State legislative assemblies, and the Legislative Assembly of the National Capital Territory of Delhi.

Conclusion

How many amendments in Indian constitution? The world’s longest-written constitution, the Indian Constitution, has undergone multiple amendments to accommodate changing societal demands. From the First Amendment in 1951 to the 106th Amendment in 2023, these amendments show how India’s political, social, and economic conditions have changed. Every amendment demonstrates how adaptable and dedicated to progressive change the Constitution is.

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