Father of Indian Constitution: A Tribute to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

Father of indian constitution

In Indian history, there is a place for the Father of Indian Constitution. This notable person is none other than Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, the first law minister of independent India and the man generally credited with creating the Indian Constitution. His unwavering work and inspiring leadership were crucial in forming the foundation of India’s independent constitution. Generations after generation are inspired by the unmatched contribution of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to the creation of the Indian Constitution. 

Who is Known as the Father of Indian Constitution?

The Independent Indian Constitution was largely drafted by Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, also known as Babasaheb, who is widely regarded as the “Father of the Indian Constitution.” He was not only a well-known writer, economist, editor, revolutionary, and supporter of the Buddhist revival, but also a political activist, jurist, historian, anthropologist, philosopher, and thinker. Throughout his life, he fought for social justice, equality, and human rights, as well as for the rights of Dalits and other marginalised groups. Dr. Ambedkar became the first Dalit to serve as Law Minister in Indian history.

The Early Life and Education of Ambedkar 

On April 14, 1891, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was born into a low-caste family. He experienced caste discrimination so frequently as a child that he was unable to attend school like children from higher castes. He received appalling treatment, and this corrupt punishment motivated him to fight against it going forward.

As a leader, Dr. Ambedkar was bold, driven, and ambitious. He was extremely diligent because, in spite of unfavourable circumstances, he finished his education with distinction. He had the chance to attend Elphinstone College in Mumbai, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree with two language courses—Persian and English. Furthermore, he was given the chance to study in the United States by the Maharaja of Baroda. He seized the chance with open arms, enrolling as a Gaekwad scholar at Columbia University in the United States in July 1913 and received his M.A. in 1914 for his “Ancient Indian Commerce” thesis. He gave a talk at an anthropology seminar in 1915 titled “The Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis, and Development.”

Ambedkar turned in his doctoral thesis, “National Dividend of India: A Historic and Analytical Study,” in 1916. He attended the London School of Economics & Political Science that same year to study political science and economics. He studied law at Gray’s Inn and was enrolled in the Bar course at the same time. His thesis, “The Problem of the Rupee – Its Origin and Its Solution,” was published in 1923 after he earned his D. Sc. (Doctorate in Science) in Economics. In addition, he earned his doctorate in 1952 and 1953, respectively, in L.L.D. (Doctor of Law) and D Lit (Doctor of Literature).

Why is Bhimrao Ambedkar Known as the Father of Indian Constitution?

  • Champion of Social Justice: Dr. Ambedkar was a fervent supporter of equality and social justice. He battled against prejudice and worked to elevate the downtrodden and marginalised groups in society all of his life. The elements of the Constitution that addressed these issues were influenced by his vision of a just and equitable society.
  • International Influence: Dr. Ambedkar’s interactions with other constitutional experts, as well as his travels abroad, helped him better understand democratic principles. He adapted several international constitutions to meet the unique needs of India, drawing inspiration from them in the process.
  • Expertise in Law: Due to his extensive legal knowledge and experience, Dr. Ambedkar was a perfect choice to draft the Constitution. In addition, he was “India’s first Law Minister.” He was able to precisely and strategically draft the document thanks to his legal knowledge and comprehension of constitutional principles.
  • Architect of the Indian Constitution: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is known as the Father of the Indian Constitution for his significant contributions to its framing and drafting. He succeeded Sir Guor Jennings, a well-known constitutional expert who later became Chairman of the Drafting Committee. Under his leadership, the nation’s constitution was written in an inclusive and comprehensive manner.
  • Protector of Fundamental Rights: Dr. Ambedkar emphasised the value of fundamental rights as a basis for democracy. He was instrumental in ensuring that the Constitution included strong protections for all citizens’ liberties and rights, regardless of background.
  • Voice for the Marginalised: Dr. Ambedkar’s personal experiences with discrimination as a Dalit community member provided him with a unique perspective on the challenges that marginalised groups face. His efforts to include provisions in the Constitution aimed at uplifting and empowering these communities were guided by his understanding of their struggles and goals.

Contributions of the Father of Indian Constitution

  • Independent Judiciary: In India, Dr. Ambedkar was instrumental in the development of an independent judiciary. He argued in favour of a judicial system that preserves the rule of law, defends citizens’ rights, and serves as a check on the other arms of government.
  • Rooting for a Secular State: Dr Ambedkar was a fervent supporter of a secular state. The Indian Constitution, which forbids the state from favouring any one religion and declares India to be a secular state, guarantees religious freedom to all of its citizens.
  • Drafting of the Preamble of the Indian Constitution: As the Chairman of the Drafting Committee, Dr. Ambedkar oversaw the work of drafting the Preamble, which contains the main text of the Indian Constitution.
  • Equal Rights for Women: Dr. Ambedkar advocated for the inclusion of laws that empowered and protected women, emphasising the importance of gender equality. The Constitution prohibits gender discrimination and ensures that women have equal rights.
  • Advocate of Fundamental Rights: A key factor in the Constitution’s inclusion of fundamental rights was Dr. Ambedkar. Individual liberties are safeguarded by these rights, which include the freedom of speech and expression, the right to equality, and the right to be free from discrimination.
  • Establishing Universal Suffrage: Dr. Ambedkar espoused the cause of universal suffrage, which guarantees the right to vote to all adult citizens without regard to factors such as economic status, gender, caste, or religion. All citizens are guaranteed democratic representation and participation by the universal suffrage principle.
  • Abolition of Untouchability: Dr. Ambedkar was committed to ensuring the Dalit community’s equality and abolishing the practice of untouchability. The Constitution expressly prohibited untouchability and included provisions to protect against caste discrimination.
  • Reservation Policies: To uplift marginalised communities, Dr. Ambedkar promoted reservation policies and affirmative action. The Constitution includes provisions for reservations in legislative bodies, the workforce, and education to give socially disadvantaged groups equal opportunities.
  • Social Justice and Welfare Measures: Many welfare provisions enshrined in the Constitution reflect Dr. Ambedkar’s vision for social justice. These initiatives aim to improve the status of underprivileged members of society by implementing policies related to social security, healthcare, and education.


Dr. B.R. Ambedkar’s significant contributions to democracy, equality, and justice have left a lasting legacy that established him as the Father of Indian Constitution. His commitment to writing an all-encompassing, inclusive Constitution and his defence of social justice and fundamental rights have had a profound impact on Indian politics and society.

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